Volume 4, Issue 141 (10-2016)                   Exceptional Education 1395, __(141): 70-77 | Back to browse issues page

XML Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

mohammadi khozani Z. Developmental Coordination Disorder: A review and update. Exceptional Education. 2016; 4 (141) :70-77
URL: http://exceptionaleducation.ir/article-1-880-en.html
University of Isfahan , zahra.mohamadi13@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4211 Views)

Background: Today, about 5 to6% of school-aged children is with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). This disorder is a neuromotor disability in which a child’s motor coordination difficulties significantly interfere with activities of daily living or academic achievement. These children typically have problem with fine or gross motor skills, and motor performance in compare with peers is instable and slower.

Conclusion: In this paper, we review the history of various definitions leading up to the current definition of DCD, prevalence estimates for the disorder, etiology, common co-morbidities, the impact of DCD on the child’s life, and prognosis. As well, we briefly describe current interventions for children with the disorder and results of recent neuroimaging studies of the brains of children with DCD, including research by the authors of this paper.

Full-Text [PDF 302 kb]   (3315 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Translation | Subject: Physical Disabilities
Received: 2016/Mar/Sat | Revised: 2016/Dec/Thu | Accepted: 2016/May/Fri | Published: 2016/Nov/Wed | ePublished: 2016/Nov/Wed

References
1. 1. Visser J. Developmental coordination disorder: a review of research on subtypes and comorbidities. Hum Mov Sci. 2003; 22:479-93.
2. 2. Rivard L, Missiuna C, Pollock N, David KS. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD). In: Campbell SK, Palisano RJ, Orlin MN, editors. Physical therapy for children. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2011. p. 498-538.
3. 3. Geuze RH. Postural control in children with developmental coordination disorder. Neural Plast. 2005; 12:183-96.
4. 4. Johnston LM, Burns YR, Brauer SG, Richardson CA. Differences in postural control and movement performance during goal directed reaching in children with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2002; 21:583-601.
5. 5. Lundy-Ekman L, Ivry R, Keele S, Woollacott M. Timing and force control deficits in clumsy children. J Cogn Neurosci. 1991; 3:367-76.
6. 6. Estil LB, Ingvaldsen RP, Whiting HT. Spatial and temporal constraints on performance in children with movement coordination problems. Exp Brain Res. 2002; 147:153-61.
7. 7. Piek JP, Skinner RA. Timing and force control during a sequential tapping task in children with and without motor coordination problems. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 1999; 5:320-9.
8. 8. Henderson L, Rose P, Henderson S. Reaction time and movement timein children with a developmental coordination disorder. J Child Psychol Psychiatry.1992; 33:895-905.
9. 9. Raynor AJ. Fractioned reflex and reaction time in children with developmental coordination disorder. Motor Control.1998; 2:114-24.
10. 10. Volman M, Geuze RH. Relative phase stability of bimanual and visuomanual rhythmic coordination patterns in children with a developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 1998; 17:541-72.
11. 11. Polatajko HJ, Cantin N. Developmental coordination disorder (dyspraxia): an overview of the state of the art. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2006; 12:250-8.
12. 12. Polatajko HJ. Developmental coordination disorder (DCD): alias the clumsy child syndrome. In: Whitmore K, Hart H, Willems G, editors. A Neurodevelopmental approach to specific learning disorders. Clinics in Developmental Medicine, no. 145. London: MacKeith Press; 1999. p. 119-33.
13. 13. World Health Organization. The international Classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF). Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
14. 14. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. text revision. 4th ed. Washington, DC: Author; 2000.
15. 15. Blank R, Smits-Engelman B, Polatajko H, Wilson P. European Academy for Childhood Disability. European Academy for Childhood Disability: recommendations on the definition, diagnosis and intervention of developmental coordination disorder (long version). Dev Med Child Neurol. 2012; 54:54-93.
16. 16. Walton JN, Ellis E, Court SD. Clumsy children: developmental apraxia and agnosia. Brain. 1962; 85:603-12.
17. 17. Polatajko H, Fox M, Missiuna C. An international consensus on children with developmental coordination disorder. Can J Occup Ther. 1995; 62:3-6.
18. 18. Missiuna C, Polatajko H. Developmental dyspraxia by any other name: are they all just clumsy children? Am J Occup Ther. 1995; 49:619-27.
19. 19. Henderson SE, Henderson L. Toward an understanding of developmental coordination disorder: terminological and diagnostic issues. Neural Plast. 2003; 10:1-13.
20. 20. Gubbay SS. The clumsy child: a study in developmental apraxia and Agnostic Ataxia. London: WB Saunders; 1975.
21. 21. Ayres AJ. Types of sensory integrative dysfunction among disabled learners. Am J Occup Ther. 1972; 26:13-8.
22. 22. Cermak S. Developmental dyspraxia. Adv Psychol. 1985; 23:225-48.
23. 23. Miyahara M, Register C. Perceptions of three terms to describe physical awkwardness in children. Res Dev Disabil. 2000; 21:367-76.
24. 24. Laszlo JI, Sainsbury KM. Perceptual-motor development and prevention of clumsiness. Psychol Res. 1993; 55:167-74.
25. 25. Gillberg C. Deficits in attention, motor control, and perception: a brief review. Arch Dis Child. 2003; 88:904-10.
26. 26. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. revised. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Author; 1987.
27. 27. Magalhaes LC, Missiuna C, Wong S. Terminology used in research reports of developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2006; 48:937-41.
28. 28. Sugden D. Developmental coordination disorder as a specific learning disability. Leeds Consensus Statement. 2006:1-6.
29. 29. Lingam R, Hunt L, Golding J, Jongmans M, Emond A. Prevalence of developmental coordination disorder using the DSM-IV at 7 years of age: a UK population-based study. Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 693-700.
30. 30. Wright HC, Sugden DA. A two-step procedure for the identification of children with developmental co-ordination disorder in Singapore. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1996; 38:1099-105.
31. 31. Tsiotra GD, Flouris AD, Koutedakis Y, et al. A comparison of developmental coordination disorder prevalence rates in Canadian and Greek children. J Adolesc Health. 2006; 39:125-7.
32. 32. Canada Statistics. Table 051-0001 estimates of population, by age group and sex. Canada: provinces and territories, annual (persons). Statistics Canada. Available from: http://cansim2. statcan.ca/cgi-win/cnsmcgi.pgm?&Lang¼E&ArrayId¼510001. &Array_Pick¼1&Detail¼1&ResultTemplate¼CII/CII___&Root Dir¼CII/; 2006 [Accessed 23.8.2007].
33. 33. U.S. Census Bureau. Age: Census 2000 Brief. Available at: http://www.census.gov/prod/2001pubs/c2kbr01-12.pdf. [accessed 11.4.2008].
34. 34. Geuze RH, Jongmans MJ, Schoemaker MM, Smits- Engelsman BC. Clinical and research diagnostic criteria for developmental coordination disorder: a review and discussion. Hum Mov Sci. 2001; 20:7-47.
35. 35. Missiuna C, Gaines R, Soucie H. Why every office needs a tennis ball: a new approach to assessing the clumsy child. Can Med Assoc J. 2006; 175:471-3.
36. 36. Gaines R, Missiuna C, Egan M, McLean J. Educational outreach and collaborative care enhances physician’s perceived knowledge about developmental coordination disorder. BMC Health Serv Res. 2008; 8:21.
37. 37. Missiuna C, Gaines R, McLean J, et al. Description of children identified by physicians as having developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2008; 50:839-44.
38. 38. Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. Developmental coordination disorder in Swedish 7-year-old children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999; 38:820-8.
39. 39. Missiuna C, Cairney J, Pollock N, Cousins M, MacDonald K. Exploring the psychological consequences of developmental coordination disorder. Can Assoc Occup Ther Conf Proc. Ottawa, CA: CAOT; 2009.
40. 40. Edwards J, Berube M, Erlandson K, et al. Developmental coordination disorder in school-aged children born very preterm and/or at very low birth weight: a systematic review. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2011; 32:678-87.
41. 41. Kent AL, Wright IM, Abdel-Latif MENew South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Neonatal Intensive Care Units Audit Group (37 collaborators). Mortality and neurologic outcomes are greater in preterm male infants. Pediatrics. 2012; 129:124-31.
42. 42. Lao TT, Sahota DS, Suen SS, Law LW. The impact of fetal gender on preterm birth in a southern Chinese population. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2011; 24:1440-3.
43. 43. Marlow N, Hennessy EM, Bracewell MA, Wolke DEPICure Study Group. Motor and executive function at 6 years of age after extremely preterm birth. Pediatrics. 2007; 120:793-804.
44. 44. Clements SD, Peters JE. Minimal brain dysfunctions in the school-age child: diagnosis and treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1962; 6:185-97.
45. 45. Hadders-Algra M. Two distinct forms of minor neurological dysfunction: perspectives emerging from a review of data of the Groningen Perinatal Project. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002; 44:561-71.
46. 46. Holsti L, Grunau RV, Whitfield MF. Developmental coordination disorder in extremely low birth weight children at nine years. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002; 23:9-15.
47. 47. Davis NM, Ford GW, Anderson PJ, Doyle LWVictorian Infant Collaborative Study Group. Developmental coordination disorder at 8 years of age in a regional cohort of extremelylow- birthweight or very preterm infants. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49:325-30.
48. 48. Goyen TA, Lui K. Developmental coordination disorder in
49. 49. Majnemer A. Motor incoordination in children born preterm: coordinated efforts needed. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49:325-30.
50. 50. Gilger JW, Kaplan BJ. Atypical brain development: a conceptual framework for understanding developmental learning disabilities. Dev Neuropsychol. 2001; 20:465-81.
51. 51. Kaplan BJ, Wilson NB, Dewey D, Crawford SG. DCD may not be a discrete disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 1998; 17:471-90.
52. 52. Fawcett AJ, Nicolson RI. Automatisation deficits in balance for dyslexic children. Percept Mot Skills. 1992; 75:507-29.
53. 53. Nicolson RI, Fawcett AJ, Dean P. Time estimation deficits in developmental dyslexia: evidence of cerebellar involvement. Proc Biol Sci. 1995; 259:43-7.
54. 54. Ito M. Neurobiology: internal model visualized. Nature. 2000; 403:153-4.
55. 55. Ito M. Mechanisms of motor learning in the cerebellum. Brain Res. 2000; 886:237-45.
56. 56. Kagerer FA, Bo J, Contreras-Vidal JL, Clark JE. Visuomotor adaptation in children with developmental coordination disorder. Motor Control. 2004; 8:450-60.
57. 57. Kagerer FA, Contreras-Vidal JL, Bo J, Clark JE. Abrupt, but not gradual visuomotor distortion facilitates adaptation in children with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2006; 25:622-33.
58. 58. Williams J, Thomas PR, Maruff P, Butson M, Wilson PH. Motor, visual and egocentric transformations in children with developmental coordination disorder. Child Care Health Dev. 2006; 32:633-47.
59. 59. Wilson PH, Maruff P, Butson M, et al. Internal representation of movement in children with developmental coordination disorder: a mental rotation task. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2004; 46:754-9.
60. 60. Wilson PH, Maruff P, Ives S, Currie J. Abnormalities of motor and praxis imagery in children with DCD. Hum Mov Sci. 2001; 20:135-59.
61. 61. Krakauer JW, Shadmehr R. Towards a computational neuropsychology of action. Prog Brain Res. 2007; 165:383-94.
62. 62. Kawato M. Internal models for motor control and trajectory planning. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1999; 9:718-27.
63. 63. Cantin N, Polatajko HJ, Thach WT, Jaglal S. Developmental coordination disorder: exploration of a cerebellar hypothesis. Hum Mov Sci. 2007; 26:491-509.
64. 64. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Boyd LA. Neural correlates of developmental coordination disorder: a review of hypotheses. J Child Neurol. 2009; 24:1273-81.
65. 65. Dewey D, Kaplan BJ, Crawford SG, Wilson BN. Developmental coordination disorder: associated problems in attention, learning, and psychosocial adjustment. Hum Mov Sci. 2002; 21:905-18.
66. 66. Kadesjo B, Gillberg C. Attention deficits and clumsiness in Swedish 7-year-old children. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1998;40:796-804.
67. 67. Piek JP, Dyck MJ. Sensory-motor deficits in children with developmental coordination disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autistic disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2004; 23:475-88.
68. 68. Piek JP, Dyck MJ, Nieman A, et al. The relationship between motor coordination, executive functioning and attention in school aged children. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2004; 19:1063-76.
69. 69. Watemberg N, Waiserberg N, Zuk L, Lerman-Sagie T. Developmental coordination disorder in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and physical therapy intervention. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49:920-5.
70. 70. Martin NC, Piek JP, Hay D. DCD and ADHD: a genetic study of their shared aetiology. Hum Mov Sci. 2006; 25:110-24.
71. 71. Fliers E, Vermeulen S, Rijsdijk F, et al. ADHD and poor motor performance from a family genetic perspective. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009; 48:25-34.
72. 72. Iversen S, Berg K, Ellertsen B, Tonnessen FE. Motor coordination difficulties in a municipality group and in a clinical sample of poor readers. Dyslexia. 2005; 11:217-31.
73. 73. Jongmans MJ, Smits-Engelsman BC, Schoemaker MM. Consequences of comorbidity of developmental coordination disorders and learning disabilities for severity and pattern of perceptual-motor dysfunction. J Learn Disabil. 2003; 36:528-37.
74. 74. Alloway TP, Archibald L. Working memory and learning in children with developmental coordination disorder and specific language impairment. J Learn Disabil. 2008; 41:251-62.
75. 75. Cheng HC, Chen HY, Tsai CL, Chen YJ, Cherng RJ. Comorbidity of motor and language impairments in preschool children of Taiwan. Res Dev Disabil. 2009; 30:1054-61.
76. 76. Gaines R, Missiuna C. Early identification: are speech/ language-impaired toddlers at increased risk for developmental coordination disorder? Child Care Health Dev. 2007; 33:325-32.
77. 77. Hill EL. Non-specific nature of specific language impairment: a review of the literature with regard to concomitant motor impairments. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2001; 36:149-71.
78. 78. Webster RI, Majnemer A, Platt RW, Shevell MI. Motor function at school age in children with a preschool diagnosis of developmental language impairment. J Pediatr. 2005; 146:80-5.
79. 79. Archibald LMD. Alloway TP.Comparing language profiles: children with specific language impairment and developmental coordination disorder. Int J Lang Commun Disord. 2008; 43:165-80.
80. 80. Kooistra L, Crawford S, Dewey D, Cantell M, Kaplan BJ. Motor correlates of ADHD: contribution of reading disability and oppositional defiant disorder. J Learn Disabil. 2005; 38:195-206.
81. 81. Tseng MH, Howe TH, Chuang IC, Hsieh CL. Cooccurrence of problems in activity level, attention, psychosocial adjustment, reading and writing in children with developmental coordination disorder. Int J Rehabil Res. 2007; 30:327-32.
82. 82. Dunford C, Missiuna C, Street E, Sibert J. Children’s perceptions of the impact of developmental coordination disorder on activities of daily living. Br J Occup Ther. 2005; 68:207-14.
83. 83. Miller LT, Missiuna CA, Macnab JJ, Malloy-Miller T, Polatajko HJ. Clinical description of children with developmental coordination disorder. Can J Occup Ther. 2001; 68:5-15.
84. 84. Missiuna C, Gaines R, Soucie H, McLean J. Parental questions about developmental coordination disorder: a synopsis of current evidence. Paediatr Child Health. 2006; 11:507-12.
85. 85. Cantell MH, Smyth MM, Ahonen TP. Clumsiness in adolescence: educational, motor, and social outcomes of motor delay detected at 5 years. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 1994; 11:115-29.
86. 86. Cantell MH, Smyth MM, Ahonen TP. Two distinct pathways for developmental coordination disorder: persistence and resolution. Hum Mov Sci. 2003; 22:413-31.
87. 87. Geuze RH, Borger H. Children who are clumsy: five years later. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 1993; 10:10-21.
88. 88. Losse A, Henderson SE, Elliman D, et al. Clumsiness in children-do they grow out of it? A 10-year follow-up study. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1991; 33:55-68.
89. 89. Skinner RA, Piek JP. Psychosocial implications of poor motor coordination in children and adolescents. Hum Mov Sci. 2001; 20:73-94.
90. 90. Bouffard M, Watkinson EJ, Thompson LP, Causgrove Dunn JL, Romanow SKE. A test of the activity deficit hypothesis with children with movement difficulties. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 1996; 13:61-73.
91. 91. Chen HF, Cohn ES. Social participation for children with developmental coordination disorder: conceptual, evaluation and intervention considerations. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2003; 23:61-78.
92. 92. Missiuna C, Moll S, King S, King G, Law M. A trajectory of troubles: parents’ impressions of the impact of developmental coordination disorder. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2007; 27:81-101.
93. 93. Missiuna C, Moll S, King G, Stewart D, MacDonald K. Life experiences of young adults who have coordination difficulties. Can J Occup Ther. 2008; 75:157-66.
94. 94. Mandich AD, Polatajko HJ, Rodger S. Rites of passage: understanding participation of children with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2003; 22:583-95.
95. 95. Poulsen AA, Ziviani JM, Cuskelly M, Smith R. Boys with developmental coordination disorder: loneliness and team sports participation. Am J Occup Ther. 2007; 61:451-62.
96. 96. Piek JP, Barrett NC, Allen LS, Jones A, Louise M. The relationship between bullying and self-worth in children with movement coordination problems. Br J Educ Psychol. 2005; 75:453-63.
97. 97. Piek JP, Baynam GB, Barrett NC. The relationship between fine and gross motor ability, self-perceptions and self-worth in children and adolescents. Hum Mov Sci. 2006; 25:65-75.
98. 98. Heath NL, Toste JR, Missiuna C. An exploration of the relationship between motor impairment and emotional/ behavioural difficulties amongst children suspected of having DCD. Israeli J Occup Ther. 2005; 14:E153-71.
99. 99. Green D, Baird G, Sugden D. A pilot study of psychopathology in developmental coordination disorder. Child Care Health Dev. 2006; 32:741-50.
100. 100. Cairney J, Veldhuizen S, Szatmari P. Motor coordination and emotional-behavioral problems in children. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2010; 23:324-9.
101. 101. Zwicker JG, Harris SR, Klassen AF. Quality of life domains affected in children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review. Child Care Health Dev 2012 Apr 20. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2012.01379.x [Epub ahead of print].
102. 102. Fox AM, Lent B. Clumsy children: primer on developmental coordination disorder. Can Fam Physician. 1996; 42:1965-71.
103. 103. Sellers JS. Clumsiness: review of causes, treatments, and outlook. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 1995; 15:39-55.
104. 104. Hellgren L, Gillberg C, Gillberg IC, Enerskog I. Children with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP) almost grown up: general health at 16 years. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1993; 35:881-92.
105. 105. Cousins M, Smyth MM. Developmental coordination impairments in adulthood. Hum Mov Sci. 2003; 22:433-59.
106. 106. Rasmussen P, Gillberg C. Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, community-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000; 39:1424-31.
107. 107. Piek JP, Rigoli D, Pearsall-Jones JG, et al. Depressive symptomatology in child and adolescent twins with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or developmental coordination disorder. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2007; 10:587-96.
108. 108. Cairney J, Hay JA, Faught BE, Hawes R. Developmental coordination disorder and overweight and obesity in children aged 9-14 y. Int J Obes. 2005;29:369-72.
109. 109. Cairney J, Hay JA, Veldhuizen S, et al. Trajectories or relative weight and waist circumference among children with and without developmental coordination disorder. CMAJ. 2010; 182:1167-72.
110. 110. Faught BE, Hay JA, Cairney J, Flouris A. Increased risk for coronary vascular disease in children with developmental coordination disorder. J Adolesc Health. 2005; 37:376-80.
111. 111. Cairney J, Hay JA, Faught BE, Flouris A, Klentrou P. Developmental coordination disorder and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2007; 19:20-8.
112. 112. Chia LC, Guelfi KJ, Licari MK. A comparison of the oxygen cost of locomotion in children with and without developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010; 52:251-5.
113. 113. Schott N, Alof V, Hultsch D, Meermann D. Physical fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2007; 78:438-50.
114. 114. Tsiotra GD, Nevill AM, Lane AM, Koutedakis Y. Physical fitness and developmental coordination disorder in Greek children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2009; 21:186-95.
115. 115. Miller LT, Polatajko HJ, Missiuna C, Mandich AD, Macnab JJ. A pilot trial of a cognitive treatment for children with developmental coordination disorder. Hum Mov Sci. 2001; 20:183-210.
116. 116. Polatajko HJ, Mandich AD, Miller LT, Macnab JJ. Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP): part II - the evidence. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2001; 20:83-106.
117. 117. Schoemaker MM, Niemeijer AS, Reynders K, Smits- Engelsman BC. Effectiveness of neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot study. Neural Plast. 2003; 10:155-63.
118. 118. Niemeijer AS, Smits-Engelsman BC, Schoemaker MM. Neuromotor task training for children with developmental coordination disorder: a controlled trial. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49:406-11.
119. 119. Missiuna C, Rivard L, Pollock N. They’re bright but can’t write: developmental coordination disorder in school aged children. Teach Except Child [serial online](1). Article 3: August 15, 2009. Available from: http://escholarship.bc.edu/ education/tecplus/vol1/iss1/3, 2004;1.
120. 120. Sugden DA, Chambers ME. Intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder: the role of parents and teachers. Br J Educ Psychol. 2003; 73:545-61.
121. 121. Mandich AD, Polatajko HJ, Macnab JJ, Miller LT. Treatment of children with developmental coordination disorder: what is the evidence? Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2001; 20:51-68.
122. 122. Wilson PH. Practitioner review: approaches to assessment and treatment of children with DCD: an evaluative review. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005; 46:806-23.
123. 123. Sugden D. Current approaches to intervention in children with developmental coordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2007; 49:467-71.
124. 124. Hillier S. Intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder: a systematic review. Internet J Allied Health Sci Pract. 2007; 5:1-11.
125. 125. Morgan R. Systematised review: the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for children with developmental coordination disorder [MSc]. Salford, UK: University of Salford; 2006.
126. 126. Pless M, Carlsson M. Effects of motor skill intervention on developmental coordination disorder: a meta-analysis. Adapt Phys Activity Q. 2000; 17:381-401.
127. 127. Davidson T, Williams B. Occupational therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a study of the effectiveness of a combined sensory integration and perceptual-motor intervention. Br J Occup Ther. 2000; 63:495-9.
128. 128. Polatajko HJ, Kaplan BJ, Wilson BN. Sensory integration treatment for children with learning disabilities: its status 20 years later. Occup Ther J Res. 1992; 12:323-41.
129. 129. DeGangi GA, Wietlisbach S, Goodin M, Scheiner N. A comparison of structured sensorimotor therapy and childcentered activity in the treatment of preschool children with sensorimotor problems. Am J Occup Ther. 1993; 47:777-86.
130. 130. Leemrijse C, Meijer OG, Vermeer A. The efficacy of le bon de´part and sensory integration of children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomised study of six cases. Ned Tijdschr Fysiother. 2001; 111:43-51.
131. 131. Polatajko HJ, Macnab JJ, Anstett B, et al. A clinical trial of the process-oriented treatment approach for children with developmental co-ordination disorder. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1995; 37:310-9.
132. 132. Schmidt RA, Lee TD. Motor control and learning: a behavioral Emphasis. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2005.
133. 133. Revie G, Larkin D. Task-specific intervention with children reduces movement problems. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 1993; 10:29-41.
134. 134. Larkin D, Parker H. Task-specific intervention for children with DCD: a systems view. In: Cermak S, Larkin D, editors. Developmental coordination disorder. Albany, NY: Delmar; 2002. p. 234-47.
135. 135. Sugden D, Henderson S. Ecological intervention for children with movement difficulties. Oxford, UK: Pearson; 2007.
136. 136. Missiuna C, Rivard L, Bartlett D. Exploring assessment tools and the target of intervention for children with developmental coordination disorder. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr 2006; 26:71-89.
137. 137. Kleim JA, Jones TA. Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: implications for rehabilitation after brain damage. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2008; 51:S225-39.
138. 138. Querne L, Berquin P, Vernier-Hauvette M-P, et al. Dysfunction of the attentional brain network in children with developmental coordination disorder: a fMRI study. Brain Res. 2008; 1244:89-102.
139. 139. Kashiwagi M, Iwaki S, Narumi Y, Tamai H, Suzuki S. Parietal dysfunction in developmental coordination disorder: a functional MRI study. Neuroreport. 2009; 20:1319-24.
140. 140. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA. Brain activation of children with developmental coordination disorder is different than peers. Pediatrics. 2010; 126: 678-86.
141. 141. Saling LL, Phillips JG. Automatic behavior: efficient, not mindless. Brain Res Bull. 2007; 73:1-20.
142. 142. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA. Brain activation associated with motor skill practice in children with developmental coordination disorder: an fMRI study. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2011; 29:145-52.
143. 143. Zwicker JG, Missiuna C, Harris SR, Boyd LA. Developmental coordination disorder: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging study. Pediatr Neurol. 2012; 46:162-7.
144. 144. Boyd LA, Vidoni ED, Daly JJ. Answering the call: the influence of neuroimaging and electrophysiological evidence on rehabilitation. Phys Ther. 2007; 87:684-703.
145. 145. Gordon N. The cerebellum and cognition. Eur J Paed Neurol. 2007; 11:232-4.

Send email to the article author


Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb